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9th International Conference on Petroleum Engineering, will be organized around the theme “Demonstrating advancements in the field of Petroleum Engineering”
Petroleum conference 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Petroleum conference 2019
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Petroleum engineering is a combination of innovation, exploration, and expansion. This major fuels the world and provides the building blocks for every other profession to effectively carry out its work." Energy is a key component in our everyday lives. A secure energy future requires a balance between environmental impact and affordable supply. Petroleum and Geosystems engineers are able to address and solve important issues that will lead to energy security and thus are in high demand. Petroleum engineers increasingly use advanced computers, not only in the analysis of exploration data and simulation of reservoir behavior but also in automation of oilfield production and drilling operations.
Generally, crude petroleum is heated and changed into a gas. The hot gases are passed into the bottom of a distillation column and become cooler as they move up the height of the column. As the gases cool below their boiling point, they condense into a liquid. The liquids are then drawn off the distilling column at specific heights, ranging from heavy resides at the bottom, raw diesel fuels in the mid-section, and raw gasoline at the top. These raw fractions are then processed further to make several different finished products.
Although all fractions of petroleum find uses, the greatest demand is for gasoline. One barrel of crude petroleum contains only 30-40% gasoline. Transportation demands require that over 50% of the crude oil be "converted" into gasoline. To meet this demand some petroleum fractions must be converted to gasoline. This may be done by cracking-breaking down large molecules of heavy heating oil and resides; reforming- changing molecular structures of low quality gasoline molecules; and isomerization -rearranging the atoms in a molecule so that the product has the same chemical formula but has a different structure, such as converting normal butane to isobutene.
Petroleum geology is the study of origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels. It refers to the specific set of geological disciplines that are applied to the search for hydrocarbons (oil exploration).
Petroleum geology is principally concerned with the evaluation of seven key elements in sedimentary basins:
A structural trap, where a fault has juxtaposed a porous and permeable reservoir against an impermeable seal. Oil (shown in red) accumulates against the seal, to the depth of the base of the seal. Any further oil migrating in from the source will escape to the surface and seep
Evaluation of the source uses the methods of geochemistry to quantify the nature of organic-rich rocks which contain the precursors to hydrocarbons, such that the type and quality of expelled hydrocarbon can be assessed. The reservoir is a porous and permeable lithological unit or set of units that holds the hydrocarbon reserves. Analysis of reservoirs at the simplest level requires an assessment of their porosity (to calculate the volume of in situ hydrocarbons) and their permeability (to calculate how easily hydrocarbons will flow out of them). Some of the key disciplines used in reservoir analysis are the fields of structural analysis, stratigraphy, sedimentology, and reservoir engineering. The seal, or cap rock, is a unit with low permeability that impedes the escape of hydrocarbons from the reservoir rock. Common seals include evaporites, chalks, and shales. Analysis of seals involves assessment of their thickness and extent, such that their effectiveness can be quantified
The oil and gas industry is usually divided into three major sectors: upstream, midstream and downstream. The upstream oil sector is also commonly known as the exploration and production (E&P) sector. The upstream sector includes the searching for potential underground or underwater crude oil and natural gas fields, drilling of exploratory wells, and subsequently drilling and operating the wells that recover and bring the crude oil and/or raw natural gas to the surface. There has been a significant shift toward including unconventional gas as a part of the upstream sector, and corresponding developments in liquefied natural gas (LNG) processing and transport. Upstream Industry has traditionally experienced the highest quantum of Mergers, Acquisitions, and Divestitures. M&A activity for upstream oil and gas deals in 2012 totaled $254 billion in 679 deals. A large chunk of this M&A, 33% in 2012, was driven by the Unconventional/shale boom especially in the US followed by the Russian Federation and Canada. The aggregate value of Upstream E&P assets available for sale (Deals in Play) reached a record high of $135 billion in Q3-2013. The value of Deals in Play doubled from $46 billion in 2009 to $90 billion in 2010. With on-going M&A activity the level remained almost the same reaching $85 billion in Dec-2012. However, the first half of 2013 saw approximately $48 billion of net new assets coming on the market. Remarkably, the total value of Deals in Play in Q3-2013 nearly tripled over 2009 at $46 billion, in less than four years
Reservoir engineering is a branch of petroleum engineering that applies scientific principles to the drainage problems arising during the development and production of oil and gas reservoirs so as to obtain a high economic recovery. The working tools of the reservoir engineer are subsurface geology, applied mathematics, and the basic laws of physics and chemistry governing the behavior of liquid and vapor phases of crude oil, natural gas, and water in the reservoir rock.
Of particular interest to a reservoir, engineers are generating accurate reserves estimates for use in financial reporting to the SEC and other regulatory bodies. Other job responsibilities include numerical reservoir modeling, production forecasting, well testing, well drilling and workover planning, economic modeling, and PVT analysis of reservoir fluids.
Petrochemistry is made of a mixture of different hydrocarbons. Additionally, petroleum chemistry contains several more complex hydrocarbons such as asphaltenes. Each geographical location and hence oil field will produce raw petroleum with a different combination of molecules depending upon the overall percentage of each hydrocarbon it contains, this directly affects the coloration and viscosity of the petroleum chemistry. In extremely large quantities petroleum has been produced a lot of years by natural changes in organic materials. Offering the necessary building blocks petrochemicals allow downstream industries to originate and improve the quality of life. Plant oils will replace petroleum in the coming year.
Petroleum refining processes are the chemical engineering processes and other facilities used in petroleum refineries (also referred to as oil refineries) to transform crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas(LPG), gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil, and fuel oils. Petroleum refineries are very large industrial complexes that involve many different processing units and auxiliary facilities such as utility units and storage tanks. Each refinery has its own unique arrangement and combination of refining processes largely determined by the refinery location, desired products, and economic considerations. Some modern petroleum refineries process as much as 800,000 to 900,000 barrels (127,000 to 143,000 cubic meters) per day of crude oil.
Crude and condensate production in 2015 averaged 50,600 bpd, up from 2014 production of 48,800 bpd. The black oil rate reached a high of 51,000 bpd in June 2015, with a yearly average of 46,200 bpd. Several key projects were completed to improve oil and gas production, handling capacity, surveillance, and reduce downtime.
Oil operations successfully commissioned 65 new oil wells. These new wells contributed significantly to the production stabilization in 2015. At year-end, 1007 active oil and gas producers were on production. Total Khuff gas production averaged 1.3 bcfd, with a peak production rate of 1.7 bcfd in August 2015.
Petroleum engineering is a field of engineering concerned with the activities related to the production of hydrocarbons, which can be either crude oil or natural gas. Exploration and Production are deemed to fall within the upstream sector of the oil and gas industry. Exploration, by earth scientists, and petroleum engineering are the oil and gas industry's two main subsurface disciplines, which focus on maximizing economic recovery of hydrocarbons from subsurface reservoirs. The combined efforts of geologists and petroleum engineers throughout the life of a hydrocarbon accumulation determine the way in which a reservoir is developed and depleted, and usually, they have the highest impact on field economics. Petroleum engineering requires a good knowledge of many other related disciplines, such as geophysics, petroleum geology, formation evaluation (well logging), drilling, economics, reservoir simulation, reservoir engineering, well engineering, artificial lift systems, completions and oil, and gas facilities engineering. Subsequent development training has usually been done within oil companies.
Petroleum products are materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it is processed in oil refineries. Unlike petrochemicals, which are a collection of well-defined usually pure chemical compounds, petroleum products are complex mixtures. The majority of petroleum is converted to petroleum products, which includes several classes of fuels.
According to the composition of the crude oil and depending on the demands of the market, refineries can produce different shares of petroleum products. The largest share of oil products is used as "energy carriers", i.e. various grades of fuel oil and gasoline. These fuels include or can be blended to give gasoline, jet fuel, diesel fuel, heating oil, and heavier fuel oils. Heavier (less volatile) fractions can also be used to produce asphalt, tar, paraffin wax, lubricating and other heavy oils. Refineries also produce other chemicals, some of which are used in chemical processes to produce plastics and other useful materials. Since petroleum often contains a few percent sulphur-containing molecules, elemental sulphur is also often produced as a petroleum product. Carbon, in the form of petroleum coke, and hydrogen may also be produced as petroleum products. The hydrogen produced is often used as an intermediate product for other oil refinery processes such as hydrocracking and hydrodesulfurization.
Rising prices, increasing air pollution and scarcity of fuels have forced scientists to look for alternative fuel sources. All energy sources which can be naturally replenished are considered to be renewable energy sources. Most of the times these two terms are used interchangeably. There is some sort of common belief that all renewable energy sources are sustainable and there is no difference between the two terms.
However, this is not true. Renewable energy includes all those sources that do not cause any harm to the environment and have minimal impact on the surrounding environment. Sustainable is much more a wider term and includes all type of energy sources. Sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, hydropower, wave, tidal and hydrogen are renewable as well as sustainable since they have minimum impact on the environment whereas Nuclear energy is not considered as renewable but it is sustainable as it pollutes the environment. This is the only reason that it is said that all renewable energy sources are sustainable but all sustainable energy sources are not renewable.